In this post, I want to discuss what I think are the three Catholic catechisms most easily accessible to Americans. A catechism is a summary of principles or doctrines often in a question and answer format. Catechisms usually concern Christian doctrine, but books like A Confederate Catechism and The New Conservative Catechism also exist. Of the three catechisms covered in this post, only The Baltimore Catechism has a question and answer format. This format is handy for memorization, but being able to answer in one’s own words, as The Roman Catechism or Pope St. John Paul II’s The Catechism of the Catholic Church would require, is also useful and more in line with modern notions of education.
Pope Francis seems to want to reverse the consistent teaching of the Catholic Church on capital punishment. I’m sure that plenty of my dear readers have heard about how he intends to change the current passage in the Catholic catechism. It is important to discuss this change, because it has the chance to undermine all Catholic dogma. If the Church was wrong about whether capital punishment is an intrinsic evil, can we ever trust the Church about anything? Moreover, God Himself seems to strongly encourage capital punishments at certain times during the Old Testament. Is Pope Francis then saying that God commands people to do moral wrongs or that God is completely arbitrary? These are very troubling notions which really can completely undermine the authority of the Catholic Church.
Before I comment on the new one, let’s take a look at the old passage:
2266 The State’s effort to contain the spread of behaviors injurious to human rights and the fundamental rules of civil coexistence corresponds to the requirement of watching over the common good. Legitimate public authority has the right and duty to inflict penalties commensurate with the gravity of the crime. The primary scope of the penalty is to redress the disorder caused by the offense. When his punishment is voluntarily accepted by the offender, it takes on the value of expiation. Moreover, punishment, in addition to preserving public order and the safety of persons, has a medicinal scope: as far as possible it should contribute to the correction of the offender.
2267 The traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude, presupposing full ascertainment of the identity and responsibility of the offender, recourse to the death penalty, when this is the only practicable way to defend the lives of human beings effectively against the aggressor.
If, instead, bloodless means are sufficient to defend against the aggressor and to protect the safety of persons, public authority should limit itself to such means, because they better correspond to the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person.
Today, in fact, given the means at the State’s disposal to effectively repress crime by rendering inoffensive the one who has committed it, without depriving him definitively of the possibility of redeeming himself, cases of absolute necessity for suppression of the offender ‘today … are very rare, if not practically non-existent.’
So, the old statement says that the State has the right to use capital punishment in defense of society. At the same time, it offers the opinion that First World systems of penal correction are sophisticated enough to protect society from even very violent people; hence, there is no need for Canada, the United States, Europe, and certain other countries to have recourse to the death penalty. There are many developing countries where the prison systems are not so perfect, so that line of argument does not fit there.
You know, its amazing how sometimes an anime can be based on a trite, fanservicey manga and yet contain a great high story. This is precisely what happened in the case of Saber Marionette J. (Don’t read the manga.) I found myself surprised at the conservative tack it took in regard to the family. As you know, the premise of this series describes a futuristic society on another planet which must survive by cloning. Unfortunately, no women survived of the original settlers, which means that all clones are men. In order to keep the memory of women alive, men make androids in the form of women, but these lack emotion–save in the case of our heroines and their opposites, anyway. How miserable to be a man in a world without women!
But, the shogun of Japoness has a plan for bringing women back into society through using the maiden circuits in Lime, Cherry, and Bloodberry. He tells Otaru very little of his overall plan save that this will be possible once their maiden circuits or hearts have grown. However, the Shogun insists that the family is mankind’s original form and that man must regain it. This view diverges greatly from a more popular science fiction anime, Crest of the Stars, which imagines that people can do without the family. But, would people really be happy without belonging to a family? Here’s what Theodore Roosevelt says about the importance of marriage, which I quote from the forward of his autobiography: “There is need to develop all the virtues that have the state for their sphere of action; but these virtues are as dust in a windy street unless back of them lie the strong and tender virtues of a family life based on the love of the one man for the one woman and on their joyous and fearless acceptance of their common obligation to the children that are theirs.” The hardships inherent in forming a good character have their reward in love. Without love, especially the nearly unconditional love found in the family, people cannot be happy.
But, most people follow the Crest of the Stars view that families are not necessary. People place economic success as the goal of life, marriage and children are accessories rather than what makes for happiness. But, happiness is an end, and work is obviously a means. One cannot find happiness in means. Because work and generating money are not the locus of happiness, Max Scheler, a famous Catholic philosopher of the turn of the twentieth century organizes the spheres of human activity thus, from least to greatest:
The term vital refers to those activities which sustain humanity, especially the family. Most thinkers nowadays refer to community and family without using the term vital, but we see the use of this term in George Bernard Shaw’s Man and Superman, who happens to be one writer to forget that all things are not a matter of utility. Basically, modern man–or post-modern man, whichever term you think more accurate–places the economic sphere above the rest and does his best to eliminate or infringe upon the value of the rest.
The problem with such a reversal lies in that such a mindset never finds happiness. And our protagonists, poor as they are, would never be happy if it all depended on their economic situation. Instead, the people of Japoness seek happiness in community, friendship, or art. But most people would feel incomplete without families. Saber Marionette J displays this best in the case of Otaru’s sensei, who has a marionette, with whom he has fallen in love despite the fact that she doesn’t have a personality. Of course, he sees this deficiency and tricks Lime into giving up her heart. He intends to erase the data on it and install the maiden circuit into his own marionette so that they can essentially live together as husband and wife–as the two haves of humanity should. Most people need this kind of love. If this were not the case, marriage would not have been called the ordinary vocation.
And so, I shall end my remarks on the surprising conservatism of Saber Marionette J by referencing the Holy Father’s thoughts on the family. The shogun of Japoness would surely agree: “We were created to love, as a reflection of God and His Love. And in matrimonial union, the man and woman realize this vocation as a sign of reciprocity and the full and definitive communion of life.” Would that modern man learn both that happiness is the goal of life and that marriage is integral to happiness unless God has called a person to a life of service–especially as a priest or religious. No one was created for the sake of merely making money and enjoying pleasurable goods!